The time it takes for data to travel from its source to its destination is what we call Latency.
In networking, latency refers to the delay or lag that exist when a device sends a request or data packet and when the device receiving the request or packet responds.
Latency is an important factor in networking because it affects the performance of network-based applications.
Imagine you’re sending a message to a friend who lives far away. You send the message, and it takes some time to reach your friend’s phone.
Once your friend receives the message, they read it and send a reply back to you.
That reply also takes some time to reach you. The time it takes for your message to reach your friend’s phone, and for their reply to reach your phone, is what we call “latency” in networking.
It is typically measured in milliseconds (ms). Low latency means less delay, while high latency means more delay.
Here are some factors that affect latency
Network congestion is one of the causes of latency or delay in data transmission between devices. It happens when there is too much traffic on the network. It’s like when too many cars try to drive on a road at the same time, causing a traffic jam.
Another factor that affects how fast data can be sent and received is the distance between the devices that are communicating. If they are too far apart, it can take longer for the data to travel between them.
The quality and performance of the network hardware and software also plays a role in how fast data can be transmitted.
This includes stuffs like the cables, routers, switches, and other devices that make up the network. If these components are not working properly, it can slow down the network.
The type of network protocol being used can also affect how fast data can be transmitted.
A network protocol is like a set of rules that computers use to communicate with each other.
Some protocols are faster than others, so choosing the right one can help to improve network performance.
For example, in real-time communication like video game streaming, UDP is used while in non-real-time communication, TCP is used.
Low latency (or low delay) is important for real-time applications such as online gaming, video conferencing, and financial trading, where even small delays can have significant consequences.
There are several ways to reduce latency in networking, which in turn will increase the quality and performance at which data is transferred.