In fiber optics communication, a fiber which is a dielectric material (plastic or glass) is used as a channel or link to guide or transmit light waves over a short or long distance.
The fiber optic has a core which diameter is relatively the diameter of a hair strand.
The cladding which serves as a protective coating is also light in weight. Hence a fiber optics is still light in weight compared to coaxial cables or copper wires.
Putting this in mind, let’s look at some of the benefit why fiber optics communication is preferred.
1.Presence of enormous Bandwidth
Information travels at the speed of light and the carrier wave in which the message is impose on is a very high frequency wave around the GHz - THz range.
Due to this, there are large range of frequencies at which information can be transmitted which results in high channel capacity or bandwidth.
2.Relatively Small in size with light weight
It is said that an optic fiber has a core with a diameter close to that of a hair strand and because of this it is light in weight even though there is also the presence of a protective coating called cladding. The weight is still better and light compared to copper wires or coaxial cables.
3.Provide Electrical insulation
As fiber optics are fabricated using glass (a dielectric material), they are regarded as an electrical insulator.
4.less susceptible to crosstalk or interference
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) (which are caused as a result of changing magnetic field cutting across conductor) affects copper wires or coaxial cable because they are conductors.
But for fiber optics, it is a dielectric material and doesn’t allow the interference of EM or radio frequency waves.
Crosstalk is the effect of one wire on the other. As each information is transmitted and confined in a fiber which are spaced from each other, interference is less.
5.Security is more
Because a fiber optics is a dielectric, it cannot be easily tapped just as in copper wires where series tapings can be made easily. Hence it is more secure and mostly are used for military, banking and general data transmission applications.
6.Transmission loss is less
In fiber optics the transmission loss is less compared to the use of cables for transmission of information.
📖 Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice by Pearson